|Carpathian montane conifer forests, Żywiec Beskids Mountains|
Temperate coniferous forests are common in temperate regions of the world, i.a. in the mountain areas in Europe. In forests, evergreen conifers predominate, while some are a mix of conifers and broadleaf evergreen trees and/or broadleaf deciduous trees. The forests of the Carpathians displays a pronounced zonation: the foothills are mostly covered by mixed deciduous forests. The montane zone, between 600 and 1100 m (in the north) is dominated by European beech (Fagus sylvatica), silver fir (Abies alba), and Norway spruce (Picea abies). The subalpine zone (1100-1400 m in the north) consists of almost pure Norway spruce forests. Stone pine (Pinus cembra) occurs at the alpine timberline in the highest mountain ranges of the Carpathians. Above timberline, (1400 m in the northwestern Carpathians), there is a distinct krummholz zone consisting of dense thickets of mountain pine (Pinus mugo). Above the krummholz zone occur lush alpine meadows, except on the highest peaks in the Tatras, which are mostly rocky or covered with very sparse alpine vegetation. The Bieszczady mountains in the Eastern Carpathians lack the subalpine spruce forest zone. Here, the timberline of dwarfed beeches (at approximately 1200 meters) directly border the alpine meadows (The Encyclopedia of Earth).