Construction of the Zamość Fortress was initiated by Chancellor and Hetman Jan Zamoyski in the end of 16th century. Upon completion of these fortifications in 1618, it was the most modern fortress of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. By taking advantage of the terrain and the network of rivers and wetlands, an irregular seven-sided structure was built which consisted of seven bastions with curtain walls connecting them. In order to maintain contact with the city, three richly decorated gates were built into the curtain walls called “Lubelska”, “Lwowska” and “Szczebrzeska”. In the early 19th century, a multi-level, brick “Nadszaniec” was built which was almost 100 metres long and had an inner moat of a width approximately 3 metres. Because of this, it became the most important defensive point of the fortress. Inside there were shooting galleries, numerous ramps for pulling guns and casements. The “Nadszaniec” had a defensive function, it was the barracks for the soldiers and the casements found inside were used as a military prison.
The fortress was built so solidly that it was able to resist the attacks of both the Cossacks and the Swedes during the Deluge. The last siege took place during the November Uprising when Zamość was the last point of Polish defence which fell to the Russians. The fortress, which had in the meantime become obsolete, was closed down in 1866, although large fragments have survived to the present day.(Learn more: Poland Travel)
|Old Lwowska Gate and bastion|