Karkonosze Mountains. Late autumn in the forest
The Karkonosze Mountains are among the World Biosphere Reserves. In terms of the richness and rarity of flora, the Karkonosze rank third in Poland, after the Tatra Mountains and the Pieniny Mountains. The Karkonoski National Park protects many rare species facing extinction, among them endemic and relic species included in the Polish Red Book. However, the easily accessible lower parts of the mountains have been significantly changed.
The most heavily transformed by man is the flora in the lower subalpine level (400-800 m above sea level). There are mostly spruces here, introduced by man in the 19th century. Small fragments of primeval beech-fir-pine forest have been preserved in the area of National Park and other several places.