Brasov's Medieval Defensive Fortifications
|Old Town of Brașov and the White Tower. A view from Tâmpa Hill|
Brașov is located in the central part of Romania in Transylvania region. The oldest traces of human activity and settlements in Brașov date back to the Neolithic age but the first attested mention of Brașov is Terra Saxonum de Barasu ("Saxon Land of Baras") in a 1252 document. The city was described under the name Corona, a Latin word meaning "crown", a name given by the German colonists.
|Old Town of Brașov. White and Black Towers and Brașov Fortress (on the hills over the city)|
The German name Kronstadt means "Crown City" and is reflected in the city's coat of arms as well as in its Medieval Latin name, Corona. The two names of the city, Kronstadt and Corona, were used simultaneously in the Middle Ages, along with the Medieval Latin Brassovia. Probably the name of Braşov (Brassovia) came from the name of the local river named Bârsa.
|Dupa Ziduri Street (En. Behind the Walls). Graft Bastion|
|Red roofs of Brașov|
The city was founded by the Teutonic Knights in 1211 on an ancient Dacian site and next settled by the Saxons. Fortifications were erected around the city and continually expanded, with several towers maintained by different craft guilds, according to medieval custom.
The first fortifications around town were build by the Saxons and were consisted of earthen walls and wooden barriers, later reinforced with stones. In later centuries, the walls were strengthened. Most works were done between 1400 and 1650, when outer and inner walls were erected, together with massive defence towers and gates.
Formerly the historic centre of the city was surrounded by a quadrilateral shaped walls. The shorter northern and southern walls were destroyed in the 19th century to make room for the city's expansion. Originally, the city walls were equipped with seven bastions, but only a few have survived to the present day.
|White Tower and Black Church|
|View of Brasov from the Weaver's Bastion|
|The Weaver's Bastion|
One of them is Graft Bastion, located in the middle of the citadel's north-west wing. On the west side of the wall, walk along picturesque Dupa Ziduri Street (En. Behind the Walls) to catch a glimpse of the 15th century White and Black Towers. The Blacksmiths' Bastion, one of the original seven built and guarded by the city's guilds, is located at the southern end of Dupa Ziduri Street.
|South-east belt of walls|
|Towers in the south-east belt of walls. Draper Bastion|
Follow the city wall south-east to the fairy-tale Catherine's Gate. Built in 1559 and once the main entrance to medieval Kronstadt, it is the only original city gate to have survived. Nearby is the classicist Schei Gate, built in 1827. The Weavers' Bastion is located on George Cosbuc Street.
|Brașov. A view from Tâmpa Hill|
On the scenic hill over the city is located the Brașov Fortress (Cetatea). The citadel overlooking the town and the plains to the north were part of Brașov's outer fortification system. Built in wood in 1524, it was replaced with a stone structure in the 16th century, and be abandoned in the 17th century after the improvement of cannons.
|Brașov Fortress (Cetatea)|
|Brașov Fortress (Cetatea)|
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