Beech forest in the East Carpathian Biosphere Reserve
The East Carpathian Biosphere Reserve is a transboundary protected area, designated as an area of global importance under UNESCO's Programme on Man and the Biosphere. It is located in the Eastern Carpathians on the territory of three countries: Poland, Slovakia and Ukraine. This reserve is formed by the combination of three national parks. It is the only extant designated trilateral biosphere reserve in Europe.
The dominant tree species is beech (Fagus sylvatica). Other common species (silver fir, sycamore, Norway maple, oak, elm, etc.) do not account for any significant percentage of forest cover.
The beech forests of the East Carpathians represent an outstanding example of undisturbed, complex temperate forests. They contain an invaluable genetic reservoir of beech and many species associated and dependent on these forest habitats.
The entire area of the Biosphere Reserve is built of flysch rocks. The territory belongs in large part to the cool climate.
The characteristic herbaceous plants are ephemeral and early spring species, such as Anemone nemorosa, A. ranunculoides, Leucojum vernum, Dentaria bulbifera, D. glandulosa, Galantus nivalis, Isopirum thalictroides, Corydalis solida, C. hallery and Heleborus purpurascens.